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Water Wars: Global Geopolitics Takes a New Turn

Increasing tensions over water resources point out to the emergence of a new dimension to the global geopolitics, adding to the regional and neighbourly rivalries, writes Asad Mirza

The recent border clashes between Iran and Afghanistan have a really dreaded portent for the future, both at the local and global levels, besides being a pointer to how we have managed our environment resources in a foolish manner.

As per reports from the Iranian Tasnim News Agency, deadly clashes broke out between border guards and the Afghan soldiers in the border area encompassing the Zabul district of Sistan and Baluchestan province on the Iranian side and the Keng district of Nimruz province in Afghanistan.

The deadly clashes resulted in death of two Iranian border guards in clashes with Taliban forces, while the Iranians, on their part, claimed to have killed 12 Taliban soldiers.

Perplexingly, the issue over which tensions between the two neighbours ran high is how to divide the waters of the Helmand River, which the two nations must share.

Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam on the Nile River.(credit:

Iran accuses Afghanistan’s Taliban rulers of violating a 1973 treaty by restricting the flow of water from the Helmand River to Iran’s parched eastern regions, an accusation denied by the Taliban.

China’s Xinhua news agency reported that Iranian MP Hossein-Ali Shahriari, who represents Zahidan, the capital of Sistan and Baluchestan province, charged the Taliban government in Afghanistan with stopping up the flow of the Helmand River and storing extra water in the Kamal Khan Dam and other reservoirs. He complained that the Afghans have recently built new dams that are storing water that would otherwise have flowed to Iran.

Though this development might be a shocking news to many, however this is not a new phenomenon but was bound to happen not just between Iran and Afghanistan but amongst other countries too. Journalist Fatemeh Aman wrote a good summary of this conflict for the Atlantic Council, noting that drought and climate change have exacerbated the tensions over water sharing.

Both countries have built dams on the Helmand and irrigated off it, often to raise water-hungry crops not suitable to this arid environment.

6 border guards killed by ‘terrorists’ in Iran(twitter)

Fatemeh noted that Helmand is the longest river in Afghanistan, constituting over 40 per cent of Afghanistan’s surface water. With 95 per cent of the Helmand located in Afghanistan, it is a critical source of livelihood for the country’s southern and southwestern provinces. The river further flows into Iran’s arid southwest to feed the Hamoun wetlands on the Iranian side and lakes on the Afghan side, but damming, irrigation, and drought have partially dried these up, creating conditions for toxic dust clouds.

As per environmentalists, Iran and Afghanistan are projected to heat up faster than the world average, twice as fast, in fact. Already, poor water management and extra heat have had a devastating effect on the Helmand basin. Extra heat dries out the soil and contributes to more intense and more frequent droughts. It also causes greater and more rapid evaporation of water from lakes and rivers.

The water resources are critical for people living in the increasingly drought-prone Sistan and Baluchestan region; in addition the Sistan wetland ecosystem also supports flamingos, pelicans, and other migratory birds. And while the history of conflict over the Helmand River is long, the scenario is similar to conflicts over water in other regions of the world. Many social scientists foresee water wars as a result. This border clash is a small omen of bigger conflicts to come.

Tensions between Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia over the latter’s Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) and Blue Nile River resources haven’t been resolved in years, with both Egypt and Ethiopia threatening a military response at various points.

Last year, Russian troops destroyed a Dnieper River dam that diverted water away from Crimea and into Ukraine. Armed groups in Mali, Somalia and beyond destroyed water infrastructure needed by civilians. Mexico, Chile, Israel and Palestine, Kenya and Peru – the Water Conflict Chronology database lists hundreds of conflicts over water in the modern era, as well as across history.

Journal Sustainability Times quoting UN Statistical Division’s data pertaining to 2019, reports that the number of water conflicts by different regions globally as of April 2022 runs up to more than 1100 conflicts.

Environmentalist Laureen Fagan in her report for Sustainability Times further quoted Dr. Peter Gleick, co-founder of the Pacific Institute in the US and author of The Three Ages of Water, as warning that the frequency of water-related conflicts has grown in the past two decades. That’s due to violence in the Middle East, growing disputes during severe droughts over access to water in regions like Indian subcontinent and ethnic and community confrontations in sub-Saharan Africa.

Fagan further referred to a February 2023 paper on the database, co-authored by Shimabuku and published in the journal Environmental Research Letters, saying that it’s the uneven access to fresh water around the world that makes it a strategic priority during conflict, as is the case along the Iran-Afghanistan border.

Gleick and Morgan are of the view that social, economic, and political challenges associated with freshwater resources pose a variety of severe risks to communities around the world, from water-related diseases, to crop failures, to ecological destruction, to actual violence, the risks and incidences of water-related conflicts in recent years, are on the rise, and the factors driving such violence appear to be worsening. We need to understand the root causes of water conflicts and more effective strategies for reducing their probability and consequences.

Increasing tensions over water resources point out to the emergence of a new dimension to the global geopolitics, adding to the regional and neighbourly rivalries.

Now indeed the time seems to be apt to work cohesively to find a collective solution to the global demand & supply and sharing of water resources, besides taking a conscious, serious and determined approach to care more for our environment instead of just hollow talks, which seem to have become the trend of most global environmental agencies and plans. If indeed we do not act even now, then it may be too late when the real wars due to scarce water resources start erupting across the globe.

(Asad Mirza is a delhi-based senior political commentator.)


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UNHCR help thousands of needy people in Afghanistan

The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) on Thursday announced that it has provided assistance to thousands of needy people across Afghanistan…reports Asian Lite News News

On Wednesday, the UNHCR in collaboration with a number of aid agencies provided essential household items to a total of 4,506 people in Kabul, Kandahar, Kunduz and Balkh provinces, the UNHCR Afghanistan said in a Twitter post.

“In Herat (province) we provided cash grants to 665 persons to meet basic needs, and in Kabul and Herat 973 persons received cash for rent,” the agency said.

UNHCR help thousands of needy people in Afghanistan

The UN agencies together with aid agencies and a number of non-governmental organisations are racing against time to deliver life-saving aid and supplies to crisis-hit Afghans ahead of winter, reports Xinhua news agency.

The economic situation worsens in Afghanistan with higher unemployment rate and rising poverty.

Afghans make up one of the largest refugee populations worldwide.

ALSO READ: ‘Women are isolated, silenced, and left unprotected in Afghanistan’

There are 2.6 million registered Afghan refugees in the world, of whom 2.2 million are registered in Iran and Pakistan alone, according to the UNHCR.

Another 3.5 million people are internally displaced, having fled their homes searching for refuge within the country.

In light of the rapidly deteriorating security situation in 2021, the number of people fleeing will likely continue to rise, the Agency added.

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Is sanctioning Pakistan need of hour?

With the Taliban in control of Afghanistan, blame on Pakistan will increase as human rights violations and atrocities rise, writes Major General (Retd) Harsha Kakar

Last week, in a press conference alongside Pakistan’s information minister, the country’s National Security Advisor, Moeed Yusuf blamed India and Afghanistan for the widely trending ‘Sanction Pakistan’ on social media platforms.

Moeed stated, “We are beginning to see a very conscious, deliberate effort by the Afghan government to scapegoat Pakistan. Afghan and Indian accounts are being used to malign Pakistan.”

He added, “Attempts are underway to blame Pakistan for Afghanistan’s failures. As the Taliban offensive is increasing, there are campaigns to shift its blame on Pakistan.”

Earlier, Fawad Chaudhry blamed India and the Afghan leadership for spreading anti-Pak sentiment globally. With the Taliban in control in Afghanistan the blame on Pakistan will increase as Human Rights violations and atrocities rise.

Interestingly, almost 22% of ‘sanction Pakistan’ tweets were from within, for which its leadership blamed the Pashtun Tahafuz Movement (PTM), a Pashtun movement demanding an end to enforced disappearances.

Fawad Chaudhry, Pakistan’s information minister stated, ‘it transpired that India led the top trends against Pakistan and the biggest player which helped India was PTM and its activists.’ Yusuf’s remarks were part of a media briefing organized to launch the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting’s ‘Deep analytical report on anti-state trends.’

The report was an assessment of anti-Pak social media trends from 2019 to 2021, for which, as usual, India was held responsible.

The Pakistan leadership believes that the current anti-Pakistan global push is aimed at discrediting the Pakistan army, keeping the country in the FATF Grey List and blaming it for the current Afghan embroil-go.

As per Pakistan, Afghan government officials led the charge on social media platforms, accusing Pakistan of supporting the Taliban. The Afghan defence ministry had regularly posted photographs of arrested Pakistan nationals in Afghanistan and confessions of captured terrorists admitting they were trained in Pakistan.

‘Sanction Pakistan’ has impacted Islamabad’s global reputation, compelling them to employ senior ministers to debate the subject, hoping to mitigate the damage.

Participating in a TV discussion on ‘Sanction Pakistan,’ SM Qureshi, Pakistan’s foreign minister questioned Afghan’s for pushing this trend. He emphasized Pakistan’s support to Afghan refugees, keeping borders open even when the pandemic was at its peak and desiring peace in the country.

As expected, he blamed India for being behind the social media storm. ‘Sanction Pakistan’ also led to protests by the Afghan diaspora, supported by other activists, across the globe. Protests were held in Washington, Brussels, Denmark, UK, Germany and Sweden.

The common world belief is that Pakistan is responsible for the current mess in Afghanistan. While the US and other governments were pressurizing Pakistan to push the Taliban into talks and reduce violence, Pakistan accused the Afghan armed forces of failing to stem the Taliban.

Chris Alexander, a former Canadian minister and diplomat, stated in a tweet, “This isn’t just a Hashtag trending on twitter. It reflects the determination of Afghans, Pakistani’s and citizens of many other states to live in peace – free from invasion, proxy war and terrorism.”

He added, “Pakistan’s invasion of Afghanistan constitutes an armed attack and act of aggression under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. The international community must take action under Articles 41 or 42 to uphold international law and the rules-based international order.”

Christine Fair, a South Asia expert, tweeted, ‘If you care about Afghans and the slaughter they are facing at the bloodied hands of Pakistan’s proxies, you can do something. ‘Sanction Pakistan.’

Pakistan’s support to the Taliban, diverting terrorists of its owned terrorist groups including LeT and JeM, as also employing members of its army and Special Services Group to fight alongside the Taliban is well established. Reports flow of injured Taliban fighters being treated in Pakistan’s hospitals.

In a recent article, Ismail Khan, a US-allied warlord, defending Herat, currently under custody of the Taliban, was quoted as stating, ‘that this war, it isn’t between Taliban and the Afghan Government. It is Pakistan’s war against the Afghan nation.’

All Pakistan’s attempts to distance itself from support to the Taliban are considered lies when images emerge of Pakistani’s, killed fighting alongside the Taliban, being buried in Pakistan.

These funerals are attended by hundreds and the Taliban flag is in open display. These are rallying points for further recruitment.

The world’s accusations towards Pakistan grew stronger when Imran Khan announced that the Taliban are normal civilians and not a military outfit against whom Pak security agencies can act.

He even supported the Taliban view by stating that they would only come forward for talks once the current President of Afghanistan, Ashraf Ghani, is deposed.

Evidently, Imran disliked Ashraf Ghani. SM Qureshi, Pakistan’s foreign minister was accused of being the Taliban’s spokesperson when he supported a Taliban led regime by mentioning that it would prevent a resurgence of Islamic State militants in the country.

While Imran termed Osama Bin Laden a martyr, Qureshi refused to call him a terrorist.

For western powers the utility of Pakistan as a frontline state will end as soon as western forces and embassy staff withdraw from Afghanistan. It will be treated as a pariah state.

As Chris Alexander stated, “Putin’s Russia invaded Ukraine: the world sanctioned them. Pakistan is invading Afghanistan: what are we waiting for?’ Pakistan’s reputation as a nation seeking peace in Afghanistan is being questioned.

Pakistan is aware that there will be violence and revenge killings in Afghanistan, the blame for which would be on their doorsteps. It is likely that both Afghanistan and Pakistan could face sanctions.

It is too late for Pakistan to change track. It will be the first nation to recognize the Taliban led Afghanistan. ‘Sanction Pakistan’ would grow in demand as the Taliban kill more innocents. It is this concern which is pushing Pakistan to defend itself vigorously while accusing the US of abandoning Afghanistan as also the Afghan forces for not fighting.

In case Pakistan is sanctioned, its financial problems would multiply manifold and it could become a global pariah. (India News Network)
(The author is a retired Indian Army official; views expressed are his own)

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UK Govt aims to relocate 2,500 Afghan translators, families

The pledge came after published criticism from senior defence figures, urging a review of the relocation scheme in the face of escalating violence in Afghanistan and threats to former local staff, reports Asian Lite News

The government said it aimed to resettle hundreds more Afghan translators and their families, after criticism from former military top brass it was not doing enough.

Defence Secretary Ben Wallace and Home Secretary Priti Patel said they were committed to relocating the families of 500 staff who supported British troops in Afghanistan “as soon as possible” – some 2,500 individuals in total.

The pledge came after published criticism from senior defence figures, urging a review of the relocation scheme in the face of escalating violence in Afghanistan and threats to former local staff.

“There has been considerable misreporting of the scheme in the media, feeding the impression the Government is not supporting our former and current Afghan staff,” Wallace and Patel wrote.

“This could not be further from the truth and since the US announced its withdrawal we have been at the forefront of nations relocating people,” they added.

In response to pressure following the announcement of a US military withdrawal from Afghanistan, the UK accelerated its relocation scheme for Afghan local staff in May.

Since the expansion was announced, 1,400 Afghan staff and their families had been relocated, equalling the total number resettled in Britain since 2014.

Six former heads of the UK armed forces and other senior military figures voiced concern in a letter to The Times last week that Afghan staff had been rejected for relocation because of security concerns.

Often these individuals were deemed ineligible because they were dismissed from service.

The ministers asserted they needed to ensure a “balance between generosity and security” and would now offer relocation to 264 members of Afghan staff who were dismissed for a “relatively minor administrative offence”.

Of these, they said, 121 individuals in that category have already been offered relocation.

Home Secretary and The Defence Secretary visit Wretham Camp. Wretham Camp. Home Secretary Priti Patel and the Defence Secretary Ben Wallace visit Eastmere Village a British Army training Village on Wretham Camp in Thetford, where the British Army train Afghan interpreters. Afghan interpreters who supported British Armed Forces on the frontline in Helmand Province will be able to move to the UK as part of an expanded relocation scheme announced by Defence Secretary Ben Wallace and Home Secretary Priti Patel. Picture by Andrew Parsons / No 10 Downing Street

The Taliban on Wednesday claimed responsibility for Tuesday’s deadly bomb and gun attack on the capital, Kabul, amid a wider assault by the Islamist group on a string of provincial capitals.

Regular reprisals against Afghan and interpreters and their families have escalated as the Taliban have seized vast swathes of the countryside in the weeks following the withdrawal announcement.

As humanitarian displacement from the conflict increases, the UK also said it would make further changes to its rules to allow former Afghan staff and their families to make applications for relocation outside Afghanistan.

Taliban displeased with US visa offer to interpreters

Meanwhile, Taliban issued a statement condemning the United States government for offering visas to interpreters and other workers who previously allied with the US forces during their operations in the war-torn country.

“The offer of visas and encouragement to leave their home country by the US government to Afghans who worked with the American occupation as interpreters and in other sectors is plain interference in our country which the Islamic Emirate condemns,” the statement.

The group urged “the United States along with other countries to desist from such interventionist policies.” This comes after US Secretary of State Antony Blinken announced US refugee admissions for Afghan nationals on Monday.

As the US is merely weeks away from completing military withdrawal from Afghanistan, Blinken had said the State Department will resettle Afghans who assisted the United States, but who do not qualify for special immigrant visas.

Blinken had said that even as the US forces withdraw from Afghanistan, the US will remain deeply engaged with the country. He had said Afghans who work with the US or the International Security Assistance Force at some point since 2001 are facing acute fears of persecution or retribution that will likely grow as coalition forces leave the country.

“We’ll continue to welcome Afghan immigrants and refugees as our neighbors in gratitude for helping us, despite the danger. We won’t forget it,” he had added. Earlier on Friday, the first group of 200 Afghans who helped US soldiers and diplomats in Afghanistan arrived in the US under Operation Allies Refuge. Friday’s arrival at Dulles International Airport outside Washington, DC, brought Afghan translators and close family members, including scores of children and infants to start a new life in the US.

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READ MORE-Public anger against Taliban grows in Afghanistan

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EU will not recognise Taliban if they gain power by force

On Sunday, Afghan President Ashraf Ghani said that in the past two decades, the Taliban has become “more cruel and more oppressive.”…reports Asian Lite News.

Amid the unrelenting violence in Afghanistan by the Taliban, European Union has reiterated that if the terrorist group rise to power by force, the European Union and other countries will not recognize their regime.

“If Taliban rise to power militarily, the EU will not recognize them,” said Thomas Nicholson, head of the European Union delegation to Afghanistan, as quoted by The Afghanistan Times.

The EU envoy also expressed concern about the security situation in the country, saying that the bloc is trying to stay involved as much as possible.

“We are clearly very concerned about the situation. We are trying to stay involved in Afghanistan as much as possible and will continue our development assistance. We will be involved politically as well,” Nicholson said.

He said the Taliban had no proposals at the negotiating table but “If they put the plan of the Islamic Emirate on the table in the 1990s or any plan that is the Islamic Emirate, no, it will not be acceptable.”

This comes as violence has been on the rise in Afghanistan in recent weeks as the Taliban stepped up its offensive after US and NATO troops began withdrawing from the country.

On Sunday, Afghan President Ashraf Ghani said that in the past two decades, the Taliban has become “more cruel and more oppressive.”

During a virtual cabinet meeting, Ghani said, “Yes, they (Taliban) have changed but negatively. They have no wish for peace, for prosperity, or progress; we want peace but they want surrender (subdued people and government).”

Ghani’s remarks come as an Afghan watchdog released a report stating that 1,677 civilians were killed and 3,644 more were injured in Afghanistan in the first six months of this year. This shows an 80 per cent increase in casualties compared to the same period in 2020, the report said.

The Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) said on Sunday said these killings took place in 1,594 different security incidents. (ANI)

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Taliban guided by Pakistan’s special forces

Vice President of Afghanistan, Amrullah Saleh warns Pakistan that it could pay a heavy price if it continues to provide support to Taliban, reports Asian Lite News

First Vice President of Afghanistan, Amrullah Saleh has said that the Taliban are guided by special units of the Pakistani army.

Saleh wrote on his Facebook page that from the organizational point of view, the Taliban are divided into three sections, the first of which is guided by Pakistan’s special anti-terrorist cells.

In part of this article, he wrote: “From an organizational point of view, the strength of the enemy is divided into three parts — The first section deals with trained personnel directly guided by special Pakistani counter-insurgency units/nuclei from Peshawar-Quetta and elsewhere. Google communication tools and maps make it very easy. The second part is the local parts that work under the name of the military commission, and they do not play many roles except by extorting money from the people and imposing parties on the local people. The third part is the recent recruits and summonses who have no morals.”

The withdrawal of foreign troops from Afghanistan created a very immediate vacuum, “but that government forces were in order,” said Saleh.

Further, he added that if the Taliban gain more land, they will still not be able to rule the country, and the people are suffering in areas under Taliban control.

Moreover, some members of the House of Representatives said that men and women must take up arms and stand up for the preservation of the system and the achievements of the past decades.

Mir Rahman Rahmani, Speaker of the House of Representatives, said, “I ask all respected lawyers to stand bravely by your people and fight the enemy for your material and spiritual possessions.”

“Let’s unite and stand by the security forces,” said Reyhaneh Azad, a Daikundi MP.

The Members of Parliament accused the Taliban of violating the human rights of the people in a number of districts they have just reached.

“Why are the UN, human rights organizations, silent on the Afghan issue?” said Gul Ahmad Nourzad, a Nimroz MP.

Earlier, Taliban attacks on several security outposts in Ghazni city were pushed back on Sunday morning. 

Afghan security force members take part in a military operation in Chahar Dara district of Kunduz province, Afghanistan, Jan. 16, 2018. The Kunduz province, as well as neighboring Baghlan and Takhar provinces, have been the hotbeds of heavy clashes over the past couple of months as Taliban has been trying to attack the government forces in the once relatively peaceful region. (Xinhua/Ajmal Kakar/IANS)

Last month, Saleh has warned Pakistan that if it continues to provide support to Taliban then it has to pay a “very high price”.

“Pakistan-as a host of the Taliban since group’s foundation could play a significant role in the peace process, and therefore become a reliable partner of the Afghan nation,” Saleh said.

According to a recent UN report, at least a dozen different militant groups are now active in both Pakistan and Afghanistan, with at least 6,500 Pakistani nationals reportedly involved.

ALSO READ-GHANI TO TALIBAN: Who will benefit if Afghanistan is ruined?

READ MORE-Afghan forces retaliate against Taliban attack

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UK PM urged to grant asylum to Afghan women

As many as eighty-one civilians were killed last week in Afghanistan despite ongoing international efforts to bring peace to the country…reports Asian Lite News.

Human and women’s rights groups on Sunday asked the UK administration to provide asylum to the vulnerable Afghan women amid the US troops withdrawal and increase in Taliban violence in the war-torn country.

The Khaama Press reported that the campaigners have asked UK to join the US in granting visas to prominent female journalists, politicians and activists prone to the Taliban threats and also airlift Afghan interpreters and its embassy’s staff and security guards in Kabul.

Earlier, the groups have asked the Biden administration to provide up to two thousand visas specifically for vulnerable women and their advocates who are at risk after the US troops pull out from Afghanistan.

Neither UK nor the US administration has shown a green signal for the recommendation made by these groups.

This comes amid a surge in violence in Afghanistan. The Taliban has intensified its offensive against the government after foreign forces have started withdrawing from the war-torn country.

As many as eighty-one civilians were killed last week in Afghanistan despite ongoing international efforts to bring peace to the country.

Meanwhile, Qatar’s efforts to mediate between the Taliban and the Afghan government failed to reduce the violence and bring peace to the war-torn country.

Pajhwok Afghan News reported that last week, 30 civilians were killed and 51 others were injured due to 17 attacks in 11 provinces. Kandahar, Baghlan, Faryab, Khost, Jawzjan, Paktika, Kapisa, Kabul, Logar and Takhar among the attacked provinces.

Though, in the ‘peace talks’, Taliban representatives and some Afghan politicians strongly condemned attacks on non-combatants, public homes, mosques and hospitals. Both sides demanded punishment to those causing civilians casualties and property loss.

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Troops leave Bagram air base after 2 decades

Bagram Air Base served as the linchpin for US operations, where the long war against the Taliban was fought with air strikes and resupply missions from the airfield, reports Asian Lite News

All US and NATO troops have left the biggest air base in Afghanistan, a US defence official said, signalling the complete withdrawal of foreign forces from the country after two decades of war was imminent.

Bagram Air Base served as the linchpin for US operations in the rugged country, where the long war against the Taliban and their Al-Qaeda allies was fought with air strikes and resupply missions from the airfield.

“All coalition forces are off Bagram,” said the official — who asked not to be identified — without specifying when the last foreign troops left the base, 50 kilometres (30 miles) north of Kabul.

He did not say when it will be officially handed over to Afghan forces.

“We still have not been informed of any official handover of the base to Afghan forces,” a senior Afghan official said on condition of anonymity.

The US military and NATO are in the final stages of winding up involvement in Afghanistan, bringing home an unspecified number of remaining troops by a deadline of September 11.

The Taliban have launched relentless offensives across Afghanistan in the past two months, gobbling up dozens of districts as Afghan security forces have largely consolidated their power in the country’s major urban areas.

The ability of Afghan forces to maintain control over the vital Bagram airfield will likely prove pivotal to maintaining security in the nearby capital Kabul and keeping pressure on the Taliban.

Over the years, the mini-city has been visited by hundreds of thousands of US and NATO service members and contractors.

It boasted swimming pools, cinemas and spas — and even a boardwalk featuring fast-food outlets such as Burger King and Pizza Hut.

US Troops in Afghanistan

Bagram was built by the US for its Afghan ally during the Cold War in the 1950s as a bulwark against the Soviet Union in the north.

Ironically, it became the staging point for the Soviet invasion of the country in 1979, and the Red Army expanded it significantly during their near decade-long occupation.

When Moscow pulled out, it became central to the raging civil war — it was reported that at one point the Taliban controlled one end of the three-kilometre (two-mile) runway and the opposition Northern Alliance the other.


In recent months, Bagram has come under rocket barrages claimed by the jihadist Islamic State, stirring fears that militants are already eyeing the base for future attacks.

The NATO-led non-combat mission aimed to train Afghan forces into ensuring their country’s security after the departure of foreign forces.

As of February 2021, there were about 9,500 foreign troops in Afghanistan, of which the US made up the largest contingent of 2,500.

So far Germany and Italy have both confirmed the full withdrawal of their troops.

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